How Well are Job Burnout and Engagement Related to Public Service Motivation Among Civil Servants? Empirical Evidence in Pandemic Setting


  • Iin Agustina School of Administrative Science
  • Bella Rindiani School of Administrative Science
  • Aprillia Dellarosa School of Administrative Science
  • Alam A Gunawan
  • Septian Herdiana School of Administrative Science



Job Burnout, Job Engagement, Public Service Motivation


This study aims to analyze how job burnout and engagement could affect public service motivation among civil servants in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The sample in this study was employees who worked in public organizations in Bandung Raya, West Java Province, Indonesia. By using a purposive sampling technique, about 73 civils who are willing to become respondents and participate in the research. The results reveal that all hypotheses proposed in the study can be confirmed. An important finding from this study is the mediating role of job engagement on the effect of job burnout on public service motivation. Although job burnout can directly reduce job engagement and public services motivation, if public organizations can manage job engagement better, they will be able to increase public services motivation even more. The development of relationships between concepts and patterns that apply in context and other research designs is highly recommended to uncover interesting things that may not have been found in this study. Recommendations for further research are to expand the scope of the research object, in addition to re-examining the validity of the model, it is also expected to reveal other things that are important information for policymakers and leaders in public sector organizations.


Download data is not yet available.


Agustina, I., Pradesa, H. A., & Putranto, R. A. (2021). Peran Dimensi Motivasi Pelayanan Publik Dalam Meningkatkan Komitmen Afektif Pegawai. JEMAP: Jurnal Ekonomi, Manajemen, Akuntansi, Dan Perpajakan, 4(2), 218–235.

Alonso, P., & Lewis, G. B. (2001). Public Service Motivation and Job Performance: Evidence from the Federal Sector. American Review of Public Administration, 31(4), 363–380.

Alrawashdeh, H. M., Al-Tammemi, A. B., Alzawahreh, M. K., Al-Tamimi, A., Elkholy, M., Sarireh, F. Al, Abusamak, M., Elehamer, N. M. K., Malkawi, A., Al-Dolat, W., Abu-Ismail, L., Al-Far, A., & Ghoul, I. (2021). Occupational Burnout and Job Satisfaction Among Physicians in Times of COVID-19 Crisis: a Convergent Parallel Mixed-Method Study. BMC Public Health, 21, 1–18.

Bahadirli, S., & Sagaltici, E. (2021). Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Psychological Symptoms Among Emergency Physicians During COVID-19 Outbreak : A Cross-Sectional Study. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 31(1), 67–76.

Bakker, A. B. (2015). A Job Demands–Resources Approach to Public Service Motivation. Public Administration Review, 75, 723–732.

Bhanugopan, R., & Fish, A. (2006). An Empirical Investigation of Job Burnout Among Expatriates. Personnel Review, 35(4), 449–468.

Brewer, E. W., & Shapard, L. (2004). Employee Burnout: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Age or Years of Experience. Human Resource Development Review, 3(2), 102–123.

Byrne, B. M. (1994). Burnout: Testing for the Validity, Replication, and Invariance of Causal Structure Across Elementary, Intermediate, and Secondary Teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 31(3), 645–673.

Chen, C., Yen, C., & Tsai, F. C. (2014). Job Crafting and Job Engagement: The Mediating Role of Person-Job Fit. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 37, 21–28.

Christensen, R. K., Paarlberg, L., & Perry, J. L. (2017). Public Service Motivation Research: Lessons for Practice. Public Administration Review, 77(4), 529–542.

Dawson, K. M., O’Brien, K. E., & Beehr, T. A. (2016). The Role of Hindrance Stressors in the Job Demand– Control–Support Model of Occupational Stress: A Proposed Theory Revision. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37, 397–415.

Dharmanegara, I. B. A., Yogiarta, I. M., & Suarka, I. B. K. (2018). Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict and its Effect on Emotional Exhaustion and Affective Commitment. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(1), 187–202.

Duriat, A., & Vaughan, R. (2020). Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan E-KTP Terhadap Kepuasan Masyarakat Di Kecamatan Kramatmulya. Kebijakan: Jurnal Ilmu Administrasi, 11(1), 18–27.

Fute, A., Oubibi, M., Sun, B., Zhou, Y., & Xiao, W. (2022). Work Values Predict Job Satisfaction among Chinese Teachers during COVID-19: The Mediation Role of Work Engagement. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(3), 1–18.

Glasberg, A.-L., Eriksson, S., & Norberg, A. (2007). Burnout and ‘Stress Of Conscience Among Healthcare Personnel. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57(4), 392–403.

Guswandi, G., Nursyamsi, I., Sumardi, S., & Hardiyono, H. (2020). Improving Performance: Motivation of Public Service Officers and their Commitment. Hasanuddin Journal of Business Strategy, 2(2), 51–56.

Hansen, N., Sverke, M., & Näswall, K. (2009). Predicting Nurse Burnout from Demands and Resources in Three Acute Care Hospitals Under Different Forms Of Ownership: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(1), 95–106.

Hardiky, Mokhamad Iqbal, Devina Kristanti Nova, Amelia Rahmadewi, and Nanik Kustiningsih. 2021. “Optimalisasi Digital Payment Sebagai Solusi Pembayaran UMKM Roti Kasur.” Jurnal Riset Entrepreneurship 4(1):44–48.

Hidayati, N., & Sunaryo, H. (2019). The Effect of Public Service Motivation on Job Performance Through Satisfaction and Commitment: Case of Public Officer in Immigration Office Malang. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business and Economics, 7(1), 1–16.

Jenkins, R., & Elliott, P. (2004). Stressors, Burnout and Social Support: Nurses in Acute Mental Health Settings. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 48(6), 622–631.

Kock, R., & Burke, M. (2008). Managing Talent in the South African Public Service. Public Personnel Management, 37(4), 457–470.

Kustiningsih, Nanik, and Bambang Tjahjadi. 2020. “Mediating Effect of Business Process Performance on Innovation Strategy-Cost Performance Relationship: Case Study of Manufacturing Industry in East Java Province, Indonesia.” International Journal of Business Performance Management 21(3):346–62.

Kustiningsih, Nanik, Nawang Kalbuana, Arif Syafi’ur Rochman, Muhammad Miftah Farid, Agus Surya Bharmawan, Ilya Farida, Siti Mazilatus Sholikha, Deddy Setiawan, and Widi Hidayat. 2020. “STUDY RATIO FINANCIAL OF BANK PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA.” PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology 17(9):6571–6605.

Leisink, P., & Steijn, B. (2009). Public Service Motivation and Job Performance of Public Sector Employees in the Netherlands. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 75(1), 35–52.

Liu, X., Chen, J., Wang, D., Li, X., Wang, E., & Jin, Y. (2020). COVID-19 Outbreak Can Change the Job Burnout in Health Care Professionals. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11(December), 1–9.

Maslach, C., & Goldberg, J. (1998). Prevention of Burnout: New Perspectives. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7, 63–74.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The Measurement of Experienced Burnout. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 2(2), 99–113.

Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The Truth about Burnout: How Organizations Cause Personal Stress and What to Do About it. John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Melchior, M. E. W., Bours, G. J. J. W., Schmitz, P., & Wittich, Y. (1997). Burnout in Psychiatric Nursing: A Meta-Analysis of Related Variables. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 4(3), 193–201.

Neumann, Y., Finaly-Neumann, E., & Reichel, A. (1990). Determinants and Consequences of Students’ Burnout in Universities. The Journal of Higher Education, 61(1), 20.

Novira, A., Priatna, R., & Pradesa, H. A. (2020). Pengaruh Dimensi Kualitas Layanan terhadap Kepuasan Pengguna Layanan Kesehatan Puskesmas di Kabupaten Sumedang Tahun 2019. JEMAP: Jurnal Ekonomi, Manajemen, Akuntansi, Dan Perpajakan, 3(2), 288–302.

Owens, B. P., Baker, W. E., Sumpter, D. M., & Cameron, K. S. (2016). Relational Energy at Work: Implications for Job Engagement and Job Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(1), 35–49.

Perlman, B., & Hartman, E. A. (1982). Burnout: Summary and Future Research. Human Relations, 35(4), 283–305.

Perry, J. L. (1996). Measuring Public Service Motivation: An Assessment of Construct Reliability and Validity. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 6(1), 5–22.

Perry, J. L., & Wise, L. R. (1990). The Motivational Bases of Public Service. Public Administration Review, 50(3), 367–373.

Perry, J. L., Hondeghem, A., & Wise, L. R. (2010). Revisiting the Motivational Bases of Public Service : Twenty Years of Research and an Agenda for the Future Symposium. Public Administration Review, 70(5), 681–690.

Potipiroon, W., & Ford, M. T. (2017). Does Public Service Motivation Always Lead to Organizational Commitment? Examining the Moderating Roles of Intrinsic Motivation and Ethical Leadership. Public Personnel Management, 46(3), 1–28.

Pradesa, H. A., Maasir, L., & Priatna, R. (2021). Becoming More Burned or Enganged with Job : The Role of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict among Public Officers. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Administration Science 2020, 564(Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research), 131–135.

Pramuditha, R., & Agustina, I. (2022). Persepsi Masyarakat Pengguna atas Kualitas Pelayanan E-KTP Pada Kecamatan Bogor Barat. Jurnal Ilmiah MEA (Manajemen, Ekonomi, Dan Akuntansi), 6(1), 884–901.

Putranto, R. A., & Anwar, S. (2021). Tinjauan Empiris Motivasi Pelayanan Publik Di Masa Pandemi : Sebuah Studi Pada Aparatur Sipil Negara Di Bandung. Progress Conference, 4(1), 424–431.

Putranto, R. A., Setiajatnika, E., & Fahmi, I. (2018). The Effect of Public Service Motivation and Job Satisfaction on Public Officers’ Performance through Commitment. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(12), 1422–1435.

Ramadhan, R. F., & Tamaya, V. (2021). Standar Pelayanan Publik di Masa Pandemi Covid-19: Studi Pelayanan Perpustakaan ITERA. Jurnal Studi Ilmu Sosial Dan Politik, 1(1), 57–66.

Sarmiento, T. P., Laschinger, H. K. S., & Iwasiw, C. (2004). Nurse Educators' Workplace Empowerment, Burnout, and Job Satisfaction: Testing Kanter'S Theory. J Adv Nurs, 46(2), 134–143.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job Demands, Job Resources, and Their Relationship with Burnout and Engagement: A Multi-Sample Study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 315, 293–315.

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Rhenen, W. V. A. N. (2009). How Changes in Job Demands and Resources Predict Burnout, Work Engagement, and Sickness Absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 917(January), 893–917.

Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2009). Burnout : 35 Years of Research and Practice. Career Development International, 14(3), 204–220.

Setti, I., & Argentero, P. (2011). Organizational Features of Workplace and Job Engagement Among Swiss Healthcare Workers. Nursing and Health Sciences, 13(4), 425–432.

Setyawan, Dwi Ageng, Nurul Ila Sari, Iza Auhaina Kuswindari, Diana Etika Sari, Izza Sakhara, and Nanik Kustiningsih. 2020. “Optimalisasi Media Sosial Terhadap Pemasaran Di Usaha Mikro Kecil Menengah.” Equilibrium: Jurnal Ekonomi-Manajemen-Akuntansi 16(1):37–46.

Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2014). Recovery from Job Stress: The Stressor-Detachment Model As An Integrative Framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(S1), 72–103.

Sun, H., Sik, Y., & Hyun, H. (2021). COVID-19 : The Effects of Job Insecurity on The Job Engagement and Turnover Intent of Deluxe Hotel Employees and The Moderating Role of Generational Characteristics. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92, 1–9.

Taqi, Muhamad, Aam Slamet Rusydiana, Nanik Kustiningsih, and Irman Firmansyah. 2021. “Environmental Accounting: A Scientometric Using Biblioshiny.” International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy 11(3):369–80.

Taylor, J. (2008). Organizational Influences, Public Service Motivation and Work Outcomes: An Australian Study. International Public Management Journal, 11(1), 67–88.

Tjahjadi, Bambang, Noorlailie Soewarno, Hariyati Hariyati, Lina Nasihatun Nafidah, Nanik Kustiningsih, and Viviani Nadyaningrum. 2020. “The Role of Green Innovation between Green Market Orientation and Business Performance: Its Implication for Open Innovation.” Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity 6(4):173.

Vinje, H. F., & Mittelmark, M. B. (2007). Job Engagement’s Paradoxical Role in Nurse Burnout. Nursing and Health Sciences, 9(2), 107–111.

Wefald, A. J., & Downey, R. G. (2009). Job Engagement in Organizations: Fad, Fashion, Or Folderol? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 145 (August 2008), 141–145.

Worley, J. A., Vassar, M., Wheeler, D. L., & Barnes, L. L. B. (2008). Factor Structure of Scores From The Maslach Burnout Inventory: A Review and Meta-Analysis Of 45 Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor-Analytic Studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68(5), 797–823.

Zampetakis, L. A. (2022). Employees’ Fear At Work, Job Crafting and Work Engagement on a Daily Basis: The Case for Fear of COVID‐19. Applied Psychology, April, 1–24.




How to Cite

Agustina, I., Rindiani, B., Dellarosa, A., Gunawan, A. A., & Herdiana, S. (2022). How Well are Job Burnout and Engagement Related to Public Service Motivation Among Civil Servants? Empirical Evidence in Pandemic Setting. Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen Advantage, 6(1), 36–45.